Annotated Bibliography

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Full Reference (alphabetical)



Adams, A.E., Bybee D., Tolman, R.M., Sullivan, C.M., & Kennedy, A.C. (2013). Does job stability mediate the relationship between intimate partner violence and mental health among low-income women? American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 83(4):600-608 Data consisted of 563 low income women in the United States drawn from five waves of the Women’s Employment Study who received Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). The mediating role of job stability in explaining the impact of IPV on women’s mental health (anxiety and depression) based on the timing of IPV experiences (Recent IPV, IPV Ended Within Last 3 Years, IPV Ended 3-5 Years Ago) were explored. In terms of direct effects, IPV was significantly related to job stability; the more recent the IPV, the higher impact on job stability. In addition, IPV was positively correlated to women’s depression and anxiety for women with recent IPV and IPV Ended Within Last 3 Years, yet not such relationship were found for IPV Ended 3-5 Years ago. In terms of indirect effects, Recent IPV and IPV Ended Within Last 3 Years had an indirect impact on women’s mental health, and no effect for IPV Ended 3-5 years ago through job stability.
Adams, A. E., Greeson, M. R., Kennedy, A. C., & Tolman, R. M. (2013). The effects of adolescent intimate partner violence on women’s educational attainment and earnings. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28(17), 3283-3300. Longitudinal data from a sample of 498 women receiving welfare in the United States were utilized to examine the relationship between the experience of having adolescent IPV, educational attainment, and women’s earnings. The women’s income growth were monitored over the course of 4 years, and the result showed a general income growth. Adolescent IPV was negatively related to educational attainment. Educational attainment was significantly positively related to annual earnings and growth in earnings over time. Results indicated a significant indirect effect between adolescent IPV and women’s earnings and women’s growth in earnings over the 4-year study via educational attainment.
Adams, A. E., Tolman, R. M., Bybee, D., Sullivan, C. M., & Kennedy, A. C. (2013). The impact of intimate partner violence on low-income women’s economic well-being: The mediating role of job stability. Violence Against Women, 18(12), 1345-1367.  Longitudinal data consisting of 536 single mothers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) were surveyed from The Women’ s Employment Study in the United States. Women were categorized into groups depending on the timing of IPV (Recent IPV, IPV Ended Within Last 3 Years, IPV Ended 3-5 Years Ago). Job stability was negatively affected by IPV that had been experienced more recently. IPV was significantly associated with greater objective material hardship for Recent IPV and IPV Ended within Last 3 Years. Recent IPV was significantly related to anticipated hardship but IPV Ended within Last 3 Years and IPV Ended 3 to 5 Years Ago were not. No significant direct effects were found between IPV and job benefits. The result of the mediating role of job stability in the relationship between IPV and women’ s objective material hardship, anticipated hardship, and job benefits showed a significant impact for Recent IPV and IPV Ended 3 to 5 Years Ago, and no impact for No IPV and IPV Ended 3 to 5 Years Prior.
Ajala, E. M. (2008). Impact of domestic violence on the workplace and workers' productivity in selected industries in nigeria. Anthropologist, 10(4), 257-264. The effects of domestic violence on 200 participants’ productivity in Nigeria were examined. Results showed the impact of different forms of domestic violence on workers’ performance such as absenteeism, loss of work time, high labour turnover and low productivity.
Alexander, P. C. (2011). Childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence, work interference and women's employment.Journal of Family Violence, 26(4), 255-261. 135 housed or homeless women from an ethnically diverse sample were surveyed to examine their experiences of childhood maltreatment, IPV, employment, employment inferences by partners, and mental and physical health. Results revealed a significant relationship between IPV and work inferences in which  92.5% of women who reported a past experience of work interference also reported having experienced IPV. Childhood maltreatment also predicted both IPV and work inferences, and decreased physical and mental health. The collection of childhood maltreatment, IPV and work interference was not predictive of employment. In terms of abuse history and employment, child abuse was correlated to women’s level of job search particularly among non-Hispanic white women. Receiving job training was negatively predicted by mental and physical health. Race/ethnicity appeared to effect women’s employment and experience of work interference in several ways in which work inferences, childhood sexual abuse, multiple abusive relationship in adulthood, job search and job training difficulties were more commonplace among white women.
Ames, G.M., Cunradi, C.B., Duke, M., Todd, M., & Chen, M. (2013). Contributions of work stressors, alcohol, and normative beliefs to partner violence. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 74(2):195-204. The study analyzed the role of IPV normative beliefs among dual-earner blue collar couples. The findings showed a significant association between the male partner’s IPV norms and Male to Female Partner Violence (MFPV) and between the female partner’s IPV norms and MFPV and Female to Male Partner Violence (FMPV). In terms of intoxication and IPV, the male frequency of intoxication was directly associated with MFPV. However, male frequency of intoxication did not significantly predict FMPV, nor did female frequency of intoxication predict MFPV or FMPV. The moderating role of work stressors on IPV norms and IPV were not supported. Yet, partner’s impulsivity and negative childhood experiences had direct relationships with IPV, intoxication, job strain, and workplace conflict. 
Anderberg, D., & Rainer, H. (2013). Economic abuse: A theory of intrahousehold sabotage. Journal of Public Economics, 97, 282-295.  The study investigated a male partner’s sabotage tactics to hinder a victim’s employability. A model of economic abuse was suggested. The model is an intra-household disagreement about the allocation of time between market work and home production. Given the gender wage gap, it seems rational for a woman—being supported financially by her partner—while her partner increases his financial capacities and interferes with her work participation.
Ararat, M., Alkan, S., Bayazıt, M., Yüksel, A., & Budan, P. (2014).Domestic violence against white-collar working women in Turkey:A call for business action. Sabanci University Corporate Governance Forum This report is the outcome of a collaboration between Sabanci University's Gender and Women's Studies Forum and the Corporate Governance Forum of Turkey that sought to investigate the effect of domestic on white-collar working women’s careers and on workplaces in Turkey. The report provides an overview of the scope of domestic violence globally. 1715 participants from 19 companies were surveyed on perceptions of domestic violence, signs of domestic violence in the workplace and types of violence experienced by working women. It was revealed that domestic violence impedes women's ability to fully participate in the workplace. The report ends with best practice recommendations for businesses addressing domestic violence in the workplace.
Babcock, J. C., Green, C. E., & Robie, C. (2004). Does batterers' treatment work? A meta-analytic review of domestic violence treatment. Clinical Psychology Review, 23(8), 1023-1053. This meta-analysis examined the treatment effectiveness for domestically violent males on subsequent recidivism across 12 studies. The focus was on Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and the Duluth model among other treatment. The results showed a “small” effect size due to perpetrator’s participation in domestic violence group therapy. No significant difference in the average effect size between Duluth model and CBT was found. Regardless of reporting method, study design, and type of treatment, the effect on recidivism rates remains in the small range which implies to approximately one-tenth of a standard deviation improvement in recidivism. Treated batterers have a 40% chance of being successfully nonviolent, whereas without treatment, men have a 35% chance of maintaining nonviolence.
Baird, M., McFerran, L., & Wright, I. (2014). An equality bargaining breakthrough: Paid domestic violence  leave. Journal of Industrial Relations, 56(2): 190-207. This study discussed the procedure required for domestic violence paid leave clauses in collective bargaining agreements in Australia. A model of equality bargaining along with the four facilitative factors which includes the external environment, the bargaining relationship, organisational characteristics and the gender of negotiators were introduced. A case study that involves The Union and its log of claims and bargaining with the council as the first negotiated clauses in the world providing employees with access to paid domestic violence leave were presented.
Banyard, V., Potter, S. & Turner, H. (2011). The impact of interpersonal violence in adulthood on women's job satisfaction and productivity: The mediating roles of mental and physical health. Psychology of Violence, 1 (1):16-28. This study examined the impact of different forms of interpersonal violence (sexual violence, physical intimate partner violence, psychological abuse, and stalking) on victims’ work outcomes (job satisfaction, job benefits, job interference). The mediating role of mental and physical health were also explored. A sample of 1,079 women were interviewed. The results reveal the impact of all forms of victimization on victim’s work outcomes. Polyvictimization was related to greater mental and physical health symptoms, less job productivity, and less job satisfaction. The impact of violence victimization on work outcomes have shown to be mediated by mental and physical health symptoms with depressive symptoms a significant mediator. Women’s self-reported effects of victimization across four different victimization showed a wide array of influences from trouble concentrating to severe consequences including having quit or lost a job and having to miss work (n=665).
Beecham, D.M. (2009). The impact of intimate partner abuse on women’s experiences of the workplace: a qualitative study. PhD thesis, University of Warwick. This dissertation focused on in-depth interviews with 29 employed survivors of intimate partner abuse in primarily skilled, professional and/or managerial positions. The role of boundary work is examined, as well as the interactional dynamics of disclosure, gendered power relations and economic empowerment and workplace responses to intimate partner abuse.  
Beecham, D. (2014). An Exploration of the Role of Employment as a Coping Resource for Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Abuse. Violence and Victims, 29, 593-606. This qualitative study examined the coping responses of 28 employed women who were victims of intimate partner abuse in the United Kingdom, primarily in skilled, professional and/or managerial occupations. The role of the workplace in the coping strategies of survivors was studied, particularly from the context of organizational identities and the compartmentalization of self through boundary work. Many women received emotional and practical resources from the workplace, but they differed depending on the type of work and the organization. 
Bell, H. (2003). Cycles within cycles: Domestic violence, welfare, and low-wage work. Violence Against Women, 9(10), 1245-1262. The research explored the intersection of the cycles of poverty and abuse. 17 low-income battered women were interviewed. The results reveal several contributing factors in creating the cycle of “staying or leaving an abusive relationship” as well as “the cycles of welfare and low-wage work”: lack of court-ordered child support, lack of formal child care, and interference or abuse that limits the woman’s ability to work.
Bracken, M.I., Messing, J.T., Campbell, J.C., La Flair, L.N.,& Kub, J. (2010). Intimate partner violence and abuse among female nurses and nursing personnel: Prevalence and risk factors. Issues Ment Health Nursing, 31, 137-48 The prevalence and risk factors of intimate partner violence (IPV) and intimate partner abuse (IPA) against 1981 female nurses and nursing personnel were examined. 25% of participants reported lifetime IPV. 22.87% of the participants reported experiencing IPA. The majority of participants with IPV, also experienced IPA (%56).  Experimental variables tested included race, age, education, marital status, and having children in the home; household variables of income and caregiving responsibilities; previous experiences with violence, including childhood physical abuse, childhood sexual abuse, and witnessing IPV between parents/caregivers as a child; and professional status (nurse vs. nursing personnel), supervisory position, working full-time, and having additional employment outside of the hospital. Among these variables, five variables increased the risk of IPV: increased age (linear), having children, being a nurse, physical abuse during childhood, and sexual abuse during childhood. Three variables decreased the risk of experiencing IPV: being Asian, being married, and having a college degree. Nine significant variables were identified for IPA. Seven variables increased the risk of IPA: increased age (linear), being white, being Latina, having children, caring for elders, and physical abuse during childhood, and sexual abuse during childhood. Two variables decreased the risk of experiencing IPA: being Asian and being married.
Brandwein, R. A., & Filiano, D. M. (2000). Toward real welfare reform: The voices of battered women. Affilia, 15(2), 224-243.  This qualitative study explored battered women’s experience of abuse in light of public assistance. Data consisted of a heterogeneous sample of 25 women who were interviewed through five focus group both before and after receiving Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) in two states. Results revealed women’s various job obstacles including physical and mental health problems, lack of child care, transportation, and stalking that contribute to women’s emotional distress. The results also showed battered women’s experiences with welfare and the related obstacles. Both short-term and long-term changes were recommended to address institutional barriers in the welfare system.
Briskin, L. (2006). Equity Bargaining/ Bargaining Equity. York University This document provides information on equity bargaining issues in Canada, particularly on strategic directions to support the equity project and points to gaps in the research. The report focuses on themes relevant to equity bargaining, namely the equity agenda in collective bargaining which includes an exploration of workplace versus family-friendly flexibilit; and the importance of building union support for equity bargaining and bargaining equity, both inside unions and through coalitions and alliance.
Browne, A., Salomon, A., & Bassuk, S. S. (1999). The impact of recent partner violence on poor women's capacity to maintain work. Violence Against Women, 5(4), 393-426. The relationship between recent partner violence and battered women’s work capacity were explored using a longitudinal sample of 285 poor women through mix-method research. Two follow up interviews at 12 and 24 months after the baseline interview were conducted. The measures implemented include Conflict Tactics Scale, Employment History, Sociodemographic Factors, Brief Symptom Inventory, Substance Use, Short-Term Health Survey, Resources Necessary to Obtain or Keep Work, Source of Income, Childhood Experiences. Findings indicated more physical violence at Follow-up 1 and Follow up 2 for women who were homeless at the Baseline interview. A significant relationship were found between physical violence during follow up 1 and work status at Follow up-2 compare to low-income women without family violence (Less than 50% were likely to work <30 hours weekly in the following year). The relationship between recent violence and multiple confounding variables revealed several variables including medical and mental health problems, marital status, recent injury, substance use, and childhood abuse. Variables positively related to work status include ethnicity (being black), employment support, and external financial support. Psychological distress was negatively related to work status. Women who experienced violence at the Follow-up 1 was less likely to maintain working at the Follow-up 2 controlling for variety of confounders.
Brownell, P. (1996). Domestic violence in the workplace: An emergent issue. Crisis Intervention & Time-Limited Treatment, 3(2), 129-141.  The article introduces the issues of domestic violence in the workplace and focuses on short-term crisis intervention with survivors, as well as co-workers. It provides a review of policies and programs that existed at the time of publication.  A model of crisis intervention for workers and workplaces impacted by domestic violence is addressed. 
Bryant, V., Eliach, J., & Green, S. L. (1990). Adapting the traditional EAP model to effectively serve battered women in the workplace. Employee Assistance Quarterly, 6(2), 1-10.  This article reviews an adaptation of the traditional EAP model to support abused women in the workplace. While outdated, the article provides  information about the crucial role that EAPs can play in supporting women in abusive relationships. 
Campbell, J. C., Messing, J. T., Kub, J., Agnew, J., Fitzgerald, S., Fowler, B., . . . Bolyard, R. (2011). Workplace violence prevalence and risk factors in the safe at work study. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 53(1), 82-89.  Workplace violence (WPV) prevalence and risk factors among 2166 nurses and nursing personnel were examined using an online cross-sectional survey. 30% of participants reported WPV over the last 12 months period (19.4% physical, 19.9 psychological). Results indicated that nurses experience higher rates of WPV compared to nonnurses in every clinical settings and for all different form of violence (a difference of 6.4% for psychological, 8.1% for physical, 10.8% for other forms). The risk factors for WPV as identified by the study include being male, nurse, history of childhood abuse and intimate partner violence.
Carll, E. K. (1999). Violence in our lives: Impact on workplace, home, and community. Allyn & Bacon, Needham Heights, MA.  This book provides an overview of research and knowledge on violence in the workplace, domestic violence, legal issues pertaining to violence, stalking and violence in the media through a sociological perspective. Utilizing real-life incidents, the author provides strategies and interventions to support victims from a trauma-based lens. 
Center for Disease Control. (2003). Cost of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States. Department of Health and Human Services This national report explored the scope of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its economic costs against adult women in the United States. The report explored the prevalence and costs of fatal and non-fatal IPV, identified future research needs, and emphasized the need for IPV prevention research. The findings indicated that approximately 5.3 million intimate partner victimizations occur each year among U.S. women ages 18 and older, and nearly 1,300 women lose their lives as a result of IPV. The estimated costs for this number include at least $5.8 billion dollars annually—nearly $4.1 billion for medical and mental health care, $0.9 billion in lost productivity, and $0.9 billion in homicide lost earnings.
Center for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children. (2010). Warning signs for the workplace: A supplement to your “Neighbours, Friends and Families” brochures. University of Western Ontario.  The brochure highlights the warning signs of domestic violence that are visible in the workplace. The indicators of an abusive temperament were also explored. Common risk factors for lethal violence and domestic homicide identified by The Domestic Violence Death Review Committee in 2010 in Ontario were presented.
Collins, J. C. (2011). Strategy of career interventions for battered women. Human Resource Development Review, 10(3), 246-263. This article identified the career development challenges battered women face, and the ways these challenges can be addressed by Human Resource Development (HRD). The challenges experienced by a battered woman include psychological and physical impact of IPV, being economically dependent to abuser, lack of having important network and quality education, being stuck in a long-term cycle of abuse. The findings identified six potentially important considerations to be implemented by HRD practitioners. These considerations include escaping the cycle of abuse physically, emotionally, and in the workplace, education about battered women’s issues, advocacy for battered women causes, battered women’s reskilling, creating a network of inclusion for battered women, encouraging battered women for re-entry into the workforce.
Corporate Alliance to End Partner Violence. (2007). Corporate Leaders and America’s Workforce on Domestic Violence. The report summarized the results of two parallel studies conducted in the United States on domestic violence and its impact on the workplace. The first study,  “Corporate Leaders on Domestic Violence", consisted of a random sample of 200 CEOs or an official designee who work at Fortune 1,500 companies. The second study, “America’s Workforce on Domestic Violence”, explored the perspectives of a sample of 503 employees who work at Fortune 1,500 companies. Commonalities and differences were identified in employees and CEO’s perceptions of domestic violence. Both CEOs and employees agreed that domestic violence is a serious problem and has harmful impacts on the workplace. Employees were more likely than CEOs to emphasize the role of companies in addressing the issue. CEOs were more likely to highlights their domestic violence programs in their companies but half of employees were not aware of these programs. CEOs gave a lower rate of domestic violence among employees (6%), employee’s estimate of this rate was three times higher. Opening up the line of communication between CEOs and senior managers was recommended. It was suggested CEOs deliver domestic violence programs if asked for by employees.
Crane, P. & Constantino, R. (2003). Use of the interpersonal support evaluation list (ISEL) to guide intervention development with women experiencing abuse. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 24:523–541. The relationship between battered women’s age, race, employment status, education level, and women’s perceptions of social support was examined (n=40) using the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL). The four subscales of the ISEL are: (1) belonging or companionship support; (2) appraisal, described as emotional support or someone to talk to about problems; (3) self-esteem maintenance through social positive comparison statements when comparing oneself to others; and (4) instrumental support. Results revealed multiple significant relationships among research variables. A significant relationship were found between women’s age and ISEL score particularly for self-esteem, companionship and emotional support subscales. Positive weak association were found between the women’s race and ISEL score particularly for self-esteem, emotional support and belonging subscales. A negative relationship between women’s employment and instrumental support were found. The association between women’s education, employment and ISEL total score was insignificant.
Crowne, S.S., Juon, H., Ensminger, M., Burrell, L., McFarlane, E.,& Duggan, A. (2011). Concurrent and long-term impact of intimate partner violence on employment stability. Journal of  Interpersonal Violence, 26(6):1282-1304. This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and concurrent and long-term employment outcomes. Data consisted of a random sample of 512 women living in Hawaii who were at risk of child maltreatment participated in two-stage screening and assessment protocols. The experience of IPV measured using Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS). Participants were interviewed 12 months and 6-8 years after the baseline interview. Results indicated that women experiencing IPV at the baseline interview showed significantly lower scores in employment stability compare to women without IPV experiences. Although IPV experiences at the baseline interview was not significantly correlated to employment stability 6-8 years later, women experiencing physical assaults at one point in time were more likely to experience later employment instability. Depressive symptom accounted for 24% of the impact of IPV on employment instability.
Davidson, M. M., Nitzel, C., Duke, A., Baker, C. M., & Bovaird, J. A. (2012). Advancing career counseling and employment support for survivors: An intervention evaluation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(2), 321-328. This study examined the effectiveness of group career counselling through Advancing Career Counseling and Employment Support (Access) for domestic violence survivors (n=73). Women’s survivors career-search self-efficacy, perceived career barriers, perceived career supports, anxiety, and depression assessed at preintervention, postintervention, and 8-week follow-up using Vocational Skills Self-Efficacy Measure–Revised, My Educational and Career Barriers Measure, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. Results revealed improvement in participants’ career search self-efficacy and perceived career barrier both at postintervention and follow-up assessments. Additional significant improvements include perceived future financial supports, anxiety, and depression compared with preintervention scores.
Dougé N., Lehman E.B., & McCall-Hosenfeld J.S. (2014). Social support and employment status modify the effect of intimate partner violence on depression symptom severity in women: results from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey. Women's Health Issues. 24(4) 425-434 This study examined sociodemographic, psychosocial factors and health risk behaviors that interact with intimate partner violence (IPV) on the severity of depressive symptoms. Participants were drawn from cross-sectional data from female respondents of the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Survey (n = 16,106). Independent variable includes IPV status defined into three levels of recent, lifetime, or no IPV exposure. Depressive symptoms in accordance to DSM-IV was considered as a primary outcome variable. Covariates include Sociodemographics, Biopsychosocial Variables, and Risk Behaviors that were supposedly related to depressive symptoms according to literature. As for the prevalence of IPV, approximately 22% of the sample reported experiencing lifetime IPV, 3% reported recent IPV, and 75% reported never experiencing IPV that was in line with other national representative surveys. Results of unadjusted bivariate analysis identified two factors (employment status and social support) that interact with the association of IPV and depression.
Duhart. D.T. (2001). Violence in the workplace, 1993-99. National Crime Victimization Survey. U.S. Department of Justice. This report focuses on nonfatal violence in the workplace, including: rape and sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault. These are measured using the National Crime Victimization Survey between 1993-1999.  Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics are also included to describe and examine workplace homicide.  
Early, M. R. & Williams, R. A. (2002). Emergency nurses' experience with violence: Does it affect nursing care of battered women. Journal of Emergency Nursing, Volume 28 (3), 271-275. This cross-sectional study examined the impact of nurses’ experience of interpersonal violence involving patients or intimate partners on proposed nursing care of battered women ED patients. A sample of 195 registered nurses working in hospital emergency departments were asked to complete battering vignettes, nursing care checklist, and demographic questionnaire. Results revealed that 70% of the participants have been physically assaulted by a patient, and 40% by an intimate partner. 20% of participants reported using force against their partners. No correlation was found between previous patient or partner violence and proposed nursing care. Significant associations were found in light of participants’ gender. Female nurses who used coersion against their intimate partners (n = 41) demonstrated less care compare to female nurses without violence (n = 119). Female nurses who only experienced violence from a patient (n = 53) proposed more nursing care than did nurses who did not report patient assault.
Falk, D.R., Shepard, M.F., & Elliott, B.A. (2002). Evaluation of a domestic violence assessment protocol used by employee assistance counselors. Employee Assistance Quarterly.17, (3), 1–15. This study examined the impact of enhanced domestic violence protocol implemented by Employee Assistant Program (EAP) counsellors on domestic violence identification and referrals. Data includes the case records of the women seen by EAP counsellors prior to and after implementing the enhanced protocol (N=287). Results indicated that using an enhanced domestic violence protocol led to higher rates of identification for domestic violence, and higher rates of referrals to domestic violence resources compared to the baseline case files.
Farmer, A & Tiefenthaler, J. (2004). The Employment Effects of Domestic Violence. Research in Labour Economics, 23: 301 The relationship between abuse, employment and productivity was explored. A model was proposed that suggests a simultaneous relationship between women’s income and violence. The validity of the model was tested. The results of the model suggest that violence impacts women’s workplace productivity, being a battered women, however, does not predict the employment status. Abused women have stronger motivation to get involved in the job market to increase their economic independence.
Fisher, B. (2005). Domestic Violence and the Workplace: Do We Know Too Much of Nothing. In Vaughan, B, Workplace Violence: Issues, Trends, Strategies (97-120)  This chapter provides an introduction about the problem of domestic violence and the workplace. The scope of the problem and measurement issues that help to identify domestic violence at the workplace were discussed. The effects, consequences and costs of domestic violence on the workplace for employees, employers and co-workers were highlighted. Current synopsis of publically available information and recommendations about domestic violence in workplace was explored. Prevention and intervention strategies were recommended.
Ford-Gilboe, M., Wuest, J., Varcoe, C., Davies, L., Merritt-Gray, M., Campbell, J., & Wilk, P. (2009). Modelling the effects of intimate partner violence and access to resources on women’s health in the early years after leaving an abusive partner.Social Science & Medicine, 68(6), 1021-1029. The mediating role of personal, social and economic resources on the relationship between intimate partner violence and health outcomes among a community sample of 309 women who left an abusive partner was examined using equation modeling. Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA) was used to measure the severity of violence.  Women’s health outcomes were measured using Short-Form Health Survey version 2. Results indicated that the proposed model is a good fit to measure the direct (IPV and health outcomes) and indirect effects (IPV via existing resources and health outcomes) of IPV on health outcomes. Both direct and indirect effects of IPV on health outcomes were identified. The direct effects of IPV on physical health was four times larger than the indirect effects.
Franzway, S., Zufferey, C. & Chung, D. (2007). Domestic violence and women's employment. South Australian Government: Women's Safety Stratefy, Office for Women This study provides a literature review of the barriers and supports for abused women staying or leaving an abusive relationship while working or seeking employment. Responses by relevant agencies, including women’s services, trade unions, health services, employers, job network and income support providers, in relation to women’s experiences and to policy in Austraila were explored.
Friedman, L. N., Tucker, S. B., Neville, P. R., & Imperial, M. (1996). The impact of domestic violence on the workplace. Violence on the job: Identifying risks and developing solutions. (pp. 153-161) American Psychological Association, Washington, DC. This book was published by the American Psychological Association. Contents include the problem of workplace violence, Patterns and correlates of workplace violence, high risk occupations and workplace violence prevention and management.  
Galvez, G., Mankowski, E. S., McGlade, M. S., Ruiz, M. E., & Glass, N. (2011). Work-related intimate partner violence among employed immigrants from mexico. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 12(3), 230-246. This qualitative study explored work-related intimate partner violence among a sample of 10 Latino immigrant men attending a Batterer Intervention Program (BIP).  Four focus groups were conducted. Results indicated a wide range of work-related IPV tactics that can be grouped in two categories: work-related stalking (e.g., repeated calls, arguing over the telephone and work disruption, physically appearing at partner’s workplace and causing problems) and work disruption tactics (e.g., forcing partner to quit her job). New forms of work-related abuse were also identified such as restriction on the use of automobiles, preventing a victim to obtain driver’s licenses, or sending partners back to their families of origin outside the U.S. The impact of culture on work-related IPV showed traditional gender role expectations for women as a source of conflict from participant’s perspective.
Ghanbarpour, S. A. (2013). Understanding factors that influence the practice of safety strategies by victims of intimate partner violence. (Order No. AAI3528556, Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering This qualitative study explored factors that impact the safety decision of victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). A sample of 20 participants completed semi-structured interviews. Results identified a wide range of informal (e.g., seeking social support, avoiding the abuser and enhancing personal security) and formal (e,g., accessing the law enforcement and legal systems, domestic violence shelters, and advocacy services) strategies. Women’s safety decision was influenced by their perceptions of danger, minimizing the risk, prioritizing their family needs. Women’s workplace appeared to be a significant indicator of their safety decision; which was typically related to policies and procedures that women's employers had in place for victims of violence.
Gittens, G.E. (2011). Women trauma survivors' experiences of returning to work: an exploratory study. Counseling Psychology Dissertations, Northeastern University. This study explored the experiences of 15 women who are trauma survivors of domestic violence returning to work, using a feminist qualitative research method. Interview data was analyzed for common and emergent themes, which included: health concerns, treatment, family and community support, and accessing resource (i.e., affordable housing, healthcare, disability benefits). The author discusses implications for mental health and vocational rehabilitation professionals. Furthermore, the author highlights the need for increased awareness of the challenges that women face in employment.   
Glass, N., Bloom, T., Perrin N. & Anger, W. K. (2010). A Computer-based Training Intervention for Work Supervisors to Respond to Intimate Partner Violence. Safey and Health at Work. 1(2):167-74.  The effectiveness and acceptability of interactive Computer-Based Training (CBT) for supervisors on creating supportive and safe workplaces for victims of domestic violence was evaluated. Data consisted of 53 work supervisors from two occupational settings completed the training. All participants reported prior exposure to intimate partner violence at the workplace. The CBT significantly increased participant’s knowledge of IPV and the workplace (The mean pre-test score of 71.8 versus the mean post-test score of 96.1, the effect size of 3.56). Program evaluation was conducted through a focus group and written feedback. 96% of the participants found the program useful. Possible improvements in CBT were suggested by participants.
Hahn, S. A., & Postmus, J. L. (2014). Economic empowerment of impoverished IPV survivors: A review of best practice literature and implications for policy. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 15(2), 79-93. This study provided a review of the literature regarding best practices in addressing intimate partner violence in the lives of impoverished women. A search for relevant articles was made along with their corresponding reference sections to identify additional articles on the subject. Identified themes include ‘best practices for addressing IPV among low-Income women’, ‘best practices to economically empower IPV survivors’. This last theme is further divided into two subcategories including: ‘financial literacy programs and asset building programs’ and ‘programs for increasing human capital through higher education’. Implications for policy, practice and research was also suggested
Harris-Genge, M. (2014). The Impacts of Violence against Women on the Workplace: Perpetrators Impact the Bottom Line. MBA Thesis. University of Prince Edward Island This master's thesis outlined an overview of the research that has been conducted on violence against women and workplace outcomes. Perpetrators of violence’s financial impacts on companies were also explored.  Results showed that perpetrators interfered with the victim’s employment before, during, and after work. The examples of work-related outcomes include increased absenteeism, lateness, quitting and firings, and decreased long-term retention that cost companies. Both the short-term and long-term impacts of domestic violence on workplace were highlighted. Governmental, community and business response to domestic violence were explored.
Harrison, C. Coping with intimate partner violence at work: An exploration of coping styles and perceived work support on family-to-work conflict in an intimate partner violence sample. Dissertation Abstracts International, B: Sciences and Engineering, 5832. The study was a doctoral thesis that explored the consequences of Family-to-Work Conflict (FWC) among female victims of intimate partner violence (n=69). The relationship between the severity of IPV and the level of FWC was examined. The mediating role of women’s coping skills including emotion-focused coping skills and avoidant-focused strategies and their perceptions of work support on the relationship between FWC and organizational, psychological and physical outcomes was explored. The hypothetical interactions were compared between women with and without PTSD. Results indicated a relationship between levels of IPV and FWC. FWC significantly and positively predicted turnover intentions among participants. Significant interactions were found between avoidant-focused strategies on the relationship of FWC with job satisfaction, perceived stress, depression, and CRP levels. PTSD was not an indicator of the effects of coping strategies on undesirable organizational, physical, and psychological outcomes.
Hensing, G., & Alexanderson, K. (2000). The relation of adult experience of domestic harassment, violence, and sexual abuse to health and sickness absence. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 7(1), 1-18.  The Swedish study examined the relationship between women’s exposure to domestic harassment, violence, sexual abuse or a combination on their Sense of Coherence (SOC), Self-reported health, and sickness absence (n = 1076). Results revealed that Women never exposed to domestic harassment, violence, sexual abuse, or a combination thereof had a higher SOC than the two other groups. Adult exposure to domestic harassment, violence, sexual abuse, or a combination thereof was associated with a lower self-perceived health particularly in the dimensions vitality, mental health, and general health. Significant difference was identified in cumulative incidence of sickness absence between women exposed and non-exposed to violence in terms of the length of sick leave in long (>30 days).
Hewitt, J.B., Levin, P., & Misner, S.T. (2002). Workplace homicides in chicago: Risk factors from 1965 to 1990. AAOHN Journal, 50(9), 406-412.  The study explored homicide risk factors using police records. Data consisted of 940 workplace homicide files that occurred in Chicago from 1965 to 1990. The conceptual framework of person, place, and time or event was implemented. Results indicates that Black men were predominantly overrepresented both as a victim (49%) and offender (79%) in the dataset. The mean age for victims was 43, while the mean age for offenders was 25. 40% of the female victims were killed by their intimates compare to men (6%). 31% of the offenders were known to the victims. Works involved money exchange was identified as highest risk for workplace homicide. Areas with lower income and higher unemployment rates showed higher risk of homicide. The great proportion of homicides occurred in November, Fridays, and 8 to 9 pm, and 62% involved robbery.
Jackson, S., Feder, L., Forde, D.R., Davis, R.C., Maxwell, C.D. & Taylor, B.G. (2003). Batterer intervention programs: where do we go from here?. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Special Report.  This report analyzes the research findings that revealed little or no effects of two batterer programs in Florida and New York. The authors take a critical look at the methodology of the evaluations, as well as the programs themselves.  This report suggests directions for future policy and research and is intended for administrators of batterer intervention programs, advocates, and researchers.
Jakobsson, A., von Borgstede, C., Krantz, G., Spak, F., & Hensing, G. (2013). Possibilities and hindrances for prevention of intimate partner violence: Perceptions among professionals and decision makers in a swedish medium-sized town. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 20(3), 337-343. This qualitative study examined perspectives of the professionals and decision makers in health-care services at a Swedish town regarding the possibilities and hindrances for the prevention of domestic violence (n = 42). Seven focus group consisted of five to seven individuals were conducted. Results identified three themes: prevention proposal, hindrances, and closeness and distance to IPV. Norms building and improved social support was discussed as prevention strategies. Possible settings for action include Preschools, schools, sports associations, workplaces, and the mass media. Hindrances include societal beliefs and attitudes, shame, silence, gender inequality, the counteracting influence of the media, and lack of resources. In terms of closeness or distance to IPV, participants’ perspective varied about acceptance or referral of responsibility. Participants also expressed professional disillusion in providing prevention and support for IPV victims.
Johnson, P. R., & Gardner, S. (1999). Domestic violence and the workplace: Developing a company response. Journal of Management Development, 18(7), 590-597. This study discussed the effects of domestic violence in the workplace, the costs to companies, and strategies employers can use to help the employees and to reduce company’s legal liability. The effects of domestic violence on workplace include creating a potentially dangerous workplace for both victims and co-workers, and loss of job due to stalking. In terms of cost to employers, domestic violence costs overtly and covertly $3 to $5 billion due to employees’ loss of productivity. Opportunities for improved workplace safety include: promoting awareness, flexibility of the work assignments, referrals, providing workplace protective orders, flexible work hours, non-discriminative recruitment, establishing program for abusers, treating all employees with integrity, and creating a safe haven in the workplace.
Johnson, P.R., Gardner, S. (2000). Domestic violence invades the workplace: strategies for the global business community. Women in Management Review, 15 (4), 197 - 203. This article discusses the United States government and United States companies’ strategies in reducing domestic violence that impacts workplace. The article explained how domestic violence is linked to workplace violence. The costs and legal responsibilities of the businesses to address domestic violence are also explored. Recommendation to global business community are suggested.
Johnson, P & Indvik, J. (1999).The organizational benefits of assisting domestically abused employees.
Public Personnel Management, 28, 365-374.
This study explored the effects of domestic violence on employees’ work performance, the cost of domestic violence to companies, and the strategies employees could use to support domestically abused employees. The effects of domestic violence on employees include: having difficulty getting to work on time, focusing on task, work absenteeism, and loss of job. These effects along with employees’ decreased productivity, increased health care, increased personnel costs for replacement, emergency diversion of security and human resource personnel and increased security expenditures result in enormous cost to companies. Suggested strategies for companies include: recognizing warning signs, encouraging disclosure, initiating legal actions, developing domestic violence programs, being aware of stalker, and implementing domestic violence computer-based programs.
Kahui, S., Ku, B., Snively, S. Productivity Gains from Workplace Protection of  Victims of Domestic Violence. Wellington: MoreMedia Enterprises, 2014.  This summary of a research project conducted by The Public Service Association (PSA) examines the impact of workplace protections on domestic violence victims, staff and colleagues, the employer and overall productivity in New Zealand. Barriers to the implementation of workplace protections are discussed. The project aimed to calculate the costs of implementing protections versus the cost of domestic violence in the workplace. The productivity gained as a result of domestic violence protections resulted in recommendations including: the acknowledgment of domestic violence as a workplace issue by employers and unions, tailoring domestic violence human resource policies, including knowledge about domestic violence issues in on-line induction modules, working with pick bodies to motivate take up of existing trainings that recognize, respond and reduce domestic violence, aligning the national policies that assess the costs and benefits of domestic violence protections, and setting up an evaluation process to identify effective and ineffective workplace protection strategies.
Katula, S. (2006). Domestic violence in the workplace-part II: Employers' response. AAOHN Journal, 54(8), 341-344.  This article explained a case study of a victim of domestic violence whose work performance was affected by abuse. Creating a worksite domestic violence task force was suggested. Appropriate domestic violence trainings and education for employee assistant personnel were recommended. The need for national workplace policies in the U.S was highlighted. It was suggested that poli­cies regarding safety planning must be included in companies, and key personnel must be trained in providing that safety.
Katula, S. L. (2009). Intimate partner violence among employed women: Workplace experiences and perceptions of safety (Order No. 3364817). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: Health & Medicine. This doctoral thesis explored the experiences of safety of battered female employees at the worksite. Sample consisted of 12 participants who were out of an abusive relationship for at least 6 months, and they had disclosed their abuse experience to at least one person in a supervisory position. All participants were interviewed. The results highlighted participant’s experience of safety at their workplaces. Both physical and emotional safety were threatened at the workplace. Several strategies were used by women prior to disclosure including deceiving themselves that the abuse was not happening, denying the abuse, attempting to act normal at work when the abuse would intrude the workplace. The process of disclosure was impacted by barriers to disclosure (negative outcomes of past disclosures, inability to identify the situation as abusive and feelings of shame and embarrassment), facilitators to disclosure (mentoring relationships, supportive work environment, support services in place and no negative consequences to disclosure perceived) and finally, forced disclosures such as the need for immediate protection, fear of losing their job and the abuse becoming obvious. Participants received both positive and negative reactions from supervisors, coworkers and ancillary staff as a result of disclosure. Findings indicated that not only did concrete workplace interventions allow the victim to manage and leave her abusive situation, but positive workplace relationships encouraged and affirmed the abused employee and led to emotional healing.
Katula, S.L. (2012). Creating a safe haven for employees who are victims of domestic violence. Nursing Forum, 47(4):217-225.  This study highlighted the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) in the American  workplace, and the financial burden as a result of violence. IPV is identified as a workplace problem that impacts victim and their co-worker’s productivity that are all costly for the companies. Signs and symptoms of an abused employees were also discussed. Financial, employment and legal impacts of IPV on the victim were explored. IPV impact’s employees work performance and their abilities to maintain employment. Lack of employment leads to barriers in leaving an abusive relationship. A variety of laws supporting victims to maintain their employment are needed. Also, co-workers and other staff mental health are affected by IPV. It is recommended that workplace should be safe haven for the victims to obtain formal support in the form of employee assistant program. The possible interventions to address domestic violence in the workplace include: completing Audit/Assessment of the workplace culture, educational offerings for all employees, IPV training for key committee members, education of supervisors/managers, creating No Violence Policy, promulgation of IPV materials within the worksite, Identifying need for external communications,  assessing ability to have on site support/counseling, creating a website for employees to access privately, Identifying all community resources, identifying outcome measures to identify success of the program.
Keim, J., Strauser, D. R., & Olguin, D. L. (2009). Enhancing employment outcomes for survivors of intimate partner violence: A developmental work personality perspective. Journal of Employment Counseling, 46(3), 136-144.  This study explored the application of the Developmental Work Personality Scale (DWP) in assessment and counselling of the survivors of domestic violence. The scale assesses the items related to the development of individual’s work personality and ability to meet the contextual demands of the current labor market. The case study was provided to further illustrate the use of DWP in victims’ career and employment planning. The instrument provides a rapid assessment of a victim’s strengths and weaknesses that are associated with successful long-term employment outcomes.
Kimerling, R., Alvarez, J., Pavao, J., Mack, K. P., Smith, M. W., & Baumrind, N. (2009). Unemployment among women: Examining the relationship of physical and psychological intimate partner violence and posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24(3), 450-463.  This study examined the effects of physical violence, psychological violence and PTSD symptoms on women’s employment status. The rate of unemployment was high among women who reported IPV (20% for psychological abuse, 18% for physical abuse and 19% for PTSD). The relationship between unemployment and psychological abuse and PTSD, but not physical violence was found once the moderating role of demographic characteristics and educations attainment was controlled.
Kwesiga, E., Bell, M. P., Pattie, M., & Moe, A. M. (2007). Exploring the literature on relationships between gender roles, intimate partner violence, occupational status, and organizational benefits. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 22(3), 312-326.  This study explored the literature on domestic violence experiences of women in high-wage high-status (HWHS) positions, and their utilizations of organizational benefits for domestic violence. The role of gender on perpetration of violence was also explored. The study explained the ways women avoid seeking organizational support from gendered workplace where masculine norms and traditional gender stereotypes are deeply embedded within the workplace culture. The stigma attached to IPV and the fear of being perceived as unable to manage one’s own affairs may contribute to the reasons why women in HWHS positions underutilize these benefits.
LaVan, H., Lopez, Y.P., Katz, M., & Martin, W. M. (2012). The Impact of Domestic Violence in the Workplace.  Employment Relations Today, 39(3), 51-63. This articles provided an overview of the impact of domestic violence in the workplace. Relevant legal and public policies were also explored. The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA) contains a “general-duty clause” that requires employers to provide a safe workplace was highlighted. U.S. antidiscrimination laws and practices for the victims of domestic violence were also explored. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) that aim to improve criminal justice and community-based responses to domestic violence by providing access to services and justice professionals was discussed. The impacts of domestic violence on organisational stakeholders was explored. These impacts include psychological repercussions, Physical repercussions, and economic repercussions. Impacts of domestic violence on the victim’s or perpetrator’s employer include increased health care costs, litigation and increased security costs. Addressing the needs of employees, other stakeholders and the issues related to perpetrators were suggested. Ensuring safe workplace by employers was suggested. HR’s role in addressing the impact of domestic violence on the workplace was highlighted.
Leblanc, M.M., Barling, J. & Turner, N. (2014). Intimate partner aggression and women’s work outcomes. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 19(4):399-412. This research examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression and three types of work-related outcomes: withdrawal at work, withdrawal from work and performance. This research includes three studies. The first study examined the association between women’s experience of physical aggression and withdrawal at and withdrawal from work among three groups of women (maritally satisfied, nonabused women; maritally dissatisfied, nonabused women; and maritally dissatisfied, physically abused women, n =50). The results indicated higher work neglect (withdrawal at work) among women experiencing physical aggression. The second study aimed to include the impact of psychological aggression on workplace outcomes among a community sample of employed women (n = 249). The findings revealed that experiencing physical aggression was positively associated with withdrawal from work; psychological aggression also had unique effects on partial absenteeism, along with the effects of physical aggression. Study three examined the impact of intimate partner aggression on academic performance of female college students (n = 122). Results revealed the impact of psychological aggression on women’s academic performance.
Libbus, M. K., Sable, M. R., Huneke, D., & Anger, K. (1999). Domestic violence and implications for welfare-to-work: A qualitative investigation. Employee Assistance Quarterly, 14(4), 1-15.  This qualitative study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence and their employability, education and training program success. Sample consisted of 17 female participants who divided up into two focus groups. Results shows a wide range tactics used by the abuser to prevent women from work and education. Workplace harassment and stalking were also reported. The need for creating welfare models aimed at reducing the impact of violence on women’s career was highlighted.
Lindhorst, T., Oxford, M., & Gillmore, M. R. (2007). Longitudinal effects of domestic violence on employment and welfare outcomes. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 22(7), 812-828. This study explored the longitudinal effects of domestic violence on welfare use and employment and the role of psychological distress in mediating the impact of domestic violence on economic outcomes. Data came from longitudinal study of pregnant and parenting adolescents, collected over 13 years beginning in 1988 (n = 234).  The odds of unemployment increased by domestic violence following welfare reform. Domestic violence had no impact on welfare utilization. An association between psychological distress and unemployment was found after welfare reform. Long-term effects of domestic violence on women’s economic capacity highlighted for policymakers.
Lindquist, C. H., Clinton-Sherrod, M., Hardison, J. & Weimer,B. (2006). Inventory of Workplace Interventions Designed to Prevent Intimate Partner Violence. Center for Disease Control An inventory of workplace interventions designed to prevent intimate partner violence (IPV) was examined. The project discussed the workplace IPV prevention activities and the technical approach to developing the inventory. The scope of work for the workplace IPV inventory including the identification of existing workplace IPV prevention programs, the type of programmatic information to be included in the inventory, and the categories of interest for the appropriate stratification of workplaces included in the inventory was discussed. Goals, policies, desired outcomes and specific IPV program components were discussed.
Lindquist, C. H., McKay, T., Clinton-Sherrod, A., Pollack, K. M., Lasater, B. M., & Walters, J. L. H. (2010). The role of employee assistance programs in workplace-based intimate partner violence intervention and prevention activities. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 25(1), 46-64. This study is focused on IPV-related activities delivered by EAPs to the workplace. A sample of 28 external EAP representatives from diverse settings were interviewed. Results include: the EAP services were extensive and these services rarely focused on IPV. Workplace IPV services are available upon request. Limited demands of customization of service were also found. Companies’ lack of awareness about the impact of domestic violence on the workplace was the primary challenge of EAPs to deliver services.
Lloyd, S. (1997). The effects of domestic violence on women’s employment. Law Policy, 19 (2):139-167. A random household survey examining the impact of domestic violence on women’s employment was presented. Sample consisted of 824 low-income women. 18% of the participants reported having IPV experiences within the past year. Higher unemployment experiences and health problems were reported by abused women. The current employment status of women with and without violence was not significantly different.
Lloyd, S., & Taluc, N. (1999). The effects of male violence on female employment. Violence Against Women, 5(4), 370-392.  A random household survey examining the impact of domestic violence on women’s employment was presented. Sample consisted of 824 low-income women. 18% of the participants reported having IPV experiences within the past year. Severe violence was reported by 11% of the participants. 40% experienced coercive and threatening behaviours, and 28% experienced abuse at the criminal assault level. Higher unemployment experiences, health problems and welfare receipt were reported by abused women. The current employment status of women with and without violence was not significantly different.
Logan, T. K., Shannon, L., Cole, J., & Swanberg, J. (2007). Partner stalking and implications for women's employment. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 22(3), 268-291.  The impact of stalking on women’s employment outcomes was examined. The article includes two studies. The first study involves a sample of 482 women who had protection orders for domestic violence, and 50% of them were stalked by their partners. The second study was a qualitative study exploring 62 women who were recently stalked by their partners. Both studies’ findings suggest that women with stalking background are more vulnerable to workplace harassment and problems. Work disruption, job performance problems as a result of violence were reported.
Lord, V. B. (1998). Characteristics of violence in state government. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 13(4), 489-503.  This study was part of the North Carolina State Government’s Employment Assistant Program aimed to examine domestic violence among state employees. Sample includes full time employees of North Carolina (n = 3,500). Independent variables include demographics, job classification, supervision experience and the relationship of the abusers to the victims. Dependent variable is workplace violence. Significant relationships were found between the victims’ job classification and violence, the degree of the violence, and the relationship between perpetrators and victims.
Lynch, S.M. 2013. Not good enough and on a tether: Exploring how violent relationships impact women's sense of self. Psychodynamic Psychiatry 41, (2) (06): 219-246 This study explored women’s sense of self in the context of an abusive relationship. 100 women completed open-ended questions about the ways they describe themselves. About 50% of the women reported physical and psychological abuse (n = 57). Results indicate that women involved in an abusive relationship experience negative self-change (decreased assertiveness, confidence), identity loss or a sense of themselves as different. Work and friends appeared to provide opportunities for positive and affirming self-perceptions.
Macquarrie, B., Wathen, N. & Macgregor, J. (2014). Can work be safe when home isn't? Initial Findings of a Pan-Canadian Survey on Domestic
Violence and the Workplace.Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children.
This brief report highlights the main findings of the first national survey on domestic violence and the workplace in Canada. Published by CREVAWC, the incidence  of domestic violence in the workplace, the ways in which it impacted workers and workplaces and the impact on work performance are reported.
Maiden, R. P. (1996). The incidence of domestic violence among alcoholic EAP clients before and after treatment. Employee Assistance Quarterly, 11(3), 21-46.  This study of 80 men enrolled in alcohol-specific EAP programs measured the self-reported level of domestic violence before and after treatment. The rationale behind the study was that alcohol abuse and domestic violence are often co-occuring. If men receive treatment for their alcohol abuse, the incidence of verbal and physical aggression is likely to reduce. Results showed that there was a substantial reduction in verbal and physical aggression after treatment, but the domestic violence was not eliminated, suggesting that alcohol use exacerbates the problem. While the external motivator (employer/risk of job loss) motivated the men to seek help, it was evident that internal motivators maintained sobriety. Implications for EAP providers were discussed.
Mankowski, E., Galvez G., Perrin N.A., Hanson G.C., & Glass N. (2013). Patterns of work-related intimate partner violence and job performance among abusive men. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 2013 Oct;28(15):3041-58. 198 men enrolled in batterer intervention programs in Oregon were surveyed using a work-related IPV perpetration scale to identify any work related patterns and any possible association with individual characteristics (race, ethnicity, income, acculturation, job performance and employment. Through a cluster analysis, five distinct patterns of work-related IPV perpetration were identified—low-level tactics, interference, interference with threatened or actual violence, extreme abuse without jealousy, and extreme abuse. The patterns predict job performance, especially for men in the more severe clusters (threatened or acutal violence, and montoring/jealousy). 
Max, W., Rice, D. P., Finkelstein, E., Bardwell, R. A., & Leadbetter, S. (2004). The economic toll of intimate partner violence against women in the united states. Violence and Victims, 19(3), 259-72.  This study uses national survey data to provide estimates of the economic costs in 1995 of intimate partner violence  in the United States. The estimates include: health and mental health related costs and lost productivity from injury and premature death. The cost in 1995 was estimated to be $5.8 billion dollars, with the cost broken down by type of violence.
McFarlane, J., Malecha, A., Gist, J.,  Schultz, P., Willson, P. & Fredland, N., (2000). Indicators of intimate partner violence in women's employment: Implications for workplace action. AAOHN Journal, 48(5), 215-220.  90 female survivors seeking a protection order were interviewed using the Severity of Violence Against Women Scales to measure acutal and threatened violence, including questions about harassment at or near the workplace. Results indicated that most women had experienced harassment from an intimate partner at their workplace, along with lost productivity and negative work performance.  Workplace implications are discussed, along with strategies for safety planning.
McFarlane, J., Malecha, A., Gist, J., Watson, K., Batten, E., Hall, I., et al. (2004). Protection orders and intimate partner violence: An 18-month study of 150 black, hispanic, and white women. American Journal of Public Health, 94(4), 613-618.  149 female survivors were surveyed regarding their experiences, including worksite harassment, before and after obtaining protection orders. Results indicate that women reported experiencing significantly lower levels of intimate partner violence up to 18 months after applying for a protection order.
McFerran, L. (2011). Safe at Home, Safe at Work: National Domestic Violence and the Workplace Survey. Centre for Gender Related Violence Studies and Micromex Research This paper reports the findings of the national survey on domestic violence and its effects on the  workplace in Australia. Over 3, 600 employees responded to the survey which gathered information on the prevalence and impact of domestic violence in the workplace.
Medlin, J. A. (2012). Domestic violence and working women: The relationship between employment status and women who seek assistance.  ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 98. This study examined employed and unemployed women’s experience of domestic violence. The relationship between resources, working women, and the reporting of domestic violence was investigated. Feminist insights about gender and power and resource theory were used as theoretical frameworks. Data came from the 1989–1991 National Women’s Study. The sample consisted of a population of women (n = 4,008). The interview was comprised of six sections administered in the following sequence: (a) introductory questions, (b) depressive disorders screening, (c) victimization screening, (d) drug and alcohol screening, (e) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Interview Schedule, and (f) demographics. Results revealed that the rise of resources predicts decrease in reporting violence.  Employed women were able to seek help and counseling more often than those who were not employed. A special emphasis should be placed on assisting clients with improving education and job-seeking skills.
Meisel, J., Chandler, D., & Rienzi, B. M. (2003). Domestic violence prevalence and effects on employment in two california TANF populations. Violence Against Women, 9(10), 1191-1212.  This longitudinal study explored the experiences of Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) recipients in the United States for three years (N = 632). 54% of the women were eligible to receive domestic violence services at some point during 3 years, and 8% met the criteria in all three years. The need for services and PTSD symptoms were negatively related to working a minimum of 35 hours a week. Working fewer hours was significantly correlated to a lower wage income and job loss. 50% of the women needed external social service and support.
Moe, A. M., & Bell, M. P. (2004). Abject economics: The effects of battering and violence on women's work and employability. Violence Against Women, 10(1), 29-55. This qualitative study is focused on how domestic violence impacts the work and employability of women from various career and education levels as opposed to only low income women. Data came from interviews with 19 women in the shelter with substantial education and career background.  The employment outcomes related to domestic violence include the participants’ ability of job seeking, maintaining employment, and using wages to obtain greater economic independence and safety.
Mollica, K. & Danehower, C. (2014). Domestic violence and the workplace: The employer’s legal responsibilities. Journal of Management and Marketing Research, 17:2-11 This article examined legal issues related to domestic violence in the workplace. The employment rights of victims and the potential for illegal discrimination against domestic violence victims were explored. The employer’s liability in the event if an act of domestic violence occurs in the workplace was highlighted. Strategies for managers to enhance legal compliance and ensure the rights of domestic violence victims were suggested.
Moracco K. E., Runyan C.W., Loomis D.P., Wolf S.H., Napp D. & Butts J.D. (2000). Killed on the clock: a population-based study of workplace homicide, 1977-1991. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 37(6), 629-36.  This paper explored workplace homicide in North Carolina. Data was collected using the North Carolina medical examiner system (1997-1999). Results revealed that homicide rate is the highest among men, older, self-employed, minorities, and specific occupation such as taxi driver. 50% of the homicide cases had happened in robbery situation in retail occupations. In terms of the role of gender, women were more likely to be killed by their partners at the workplace. Strategies to prevent the occurrence of workplace homicide along with a workplace response to domestic violence were recommended.
Murray, S. & Powell, A. (2007). Family Violence Prevention Using Workplaces as Sites of Intervention, Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, 15(2), 62-74.  This Australian research project highlighted workplace as a setting for intervention and prevention of domestic violence. The project discussed three models of family violence intervention and prevention through workplace. These models include: Employer Led Model, Partnership Model and Union Based Model. The common theme regarding the implementation of these models include convincing others of the value and potential for family violence prevention through workplace for both employer and employees.
Navarro, Jordana N., Jana L. Jasinski, and Carol Wick. 2014. Working for change: Empowering employees and employers to "recognize, respond, and refer" for intimate partner abuse. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health 29, (3): 224-239, This study examined the effectiveness of a workplace domestic violence training program (Harbor House of Central Florida's Recognize, Respond, and Refer) among 157 employees and employers from various businesses. Pre and post training data were collected, indicating the training to be an effective method to strengthen knowledge regarding recognizing and responding to intimate partner abuse. Results show promise that successful training at the workplace level can foster broader change. 
Niedhammer, I., Chastang, J., Sultan-Taieb, H., Vermeylen, G., & Parent-Thirion, A. (2013). Psychosocial work factors and sickness absence in 31 countries in europe. European Journal of Public Health, 23(4), 622-629.  This large population based study examined the associations between psychosocial work factors (physical violence, sexual harassment amongst them) and sickness absence in 31 European countries. Physical violence is noted as a risk factor of the occurrence of sickness absence specifically for women. Implications for improving health at workplaces in Europe is discussed.
Occupational Health and Safety Council of Ontario. Developing workplace violence and harrassment policies and programs: a toolbox. Workplace Violence Prevention Series.  This report contains information, tools, and assessments that can be useful to employers as they develop a workplace violence policy and program, a workplace harassment policy and program, or a domestic violence program. 
Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario. (2012). Domestic Violence Death Review Committee 2011 Annual Report. Toronto, ON. This report generated by the Ontario Domestic Violence Death Review Committee and the Office of the Chief Coroner provides a detailed account of the incidence of domestic homicide and domestic homicide-suicide in Ontario in 2011. Risk factors for homicide are detailed, along with recommendations for prevention.
Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario. (2014). Domestic Violence Death Review Committee 2012 Annual Report. Toronto, ON. This report generated by the Ontario Domestic Violence Death Review Committee and the Office of the Chief Coroner outlines the incidence of domestic homicide and domestic homicide-suicide in Ontario in 2012. Risk factors for homicide are detailed, along with recommendations for prevention. 
O’Leary-Kelly, A., Lean, E., Reeves, C., & Randel, J. (2008). Coming into the light: Intimate partner violence and its effects at work. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 22 (2): 57-72. This article reviews the types, prevalence and costs (productivity and health care) of work-related intimate partner violence in the United States. The authors focus on the impact on businesses and provides best practices for management in addressing IPV in the workplace. A detailed case study of the implementation of an IPV program at a large business is presented, including the perceived success of the program. 
Paludi, M. A. (2012). "What's love got to do with it?": The workplace as a prosocial bystander for intervening in intimate partner violence. The psychology of love (vols 1–4). (pp. 171-192) Praeger/ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, CA. This book chapter focuses on how domestic violence impacts the workplace, focusing on research conducted in the United States and knowledge from the Corporate Alliance to End Partner Violence. Workplace responses are outlined and conclusions on the role of workplaces in domestic violence are presented.
Paludi, M. A. (2012). Intimate partner violence as workplace violence: Impact on women's mental health and work performance. Women and mental disorders (vols 1–4). (pp. 71-86) Praeger/ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, CA. This book chapter focuses on the spillover of domestic violence into the workplace and how the workplace can intervene effectively. The author advocates for workplace policies that address domestic violence to be implemented.
Park, S. S. (2003). Working towards freedom from abuse: Recognizing a "public policy" exception to employment-at-will for domestic violence victims. New York University Annual Survey of American Law, 59(1), 121-162. This article provides a detailed review of American laws related to domestic violence and employment.  It outlines the development of public policy, specifically in regards to recognizing domestic violence as a workplace issue. Policies that can be invoked for domestic violence victims as well as statues protecting victims are chronicled.
Perin, S. L. (1999). Employers may have to pay when domestic violence goes to work. The Review of Litigation, 18(2), 365-401.  This article reviews legal issues related to domestic violence victims and employers in the United States, including employer liability, wrongful discharge in violation of public policy, workers' compensation and federal laws. Prevention is detailed, with a focus on avoiding employer liability, policy, training and education.
Perrin, N. A., Yragui, N. L., Hanson, G. C., & Glass, N. (2011). Patterns of workplace supervisor support desired by abused women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(11), 2264-2284. 133 female victims of domestic violence were interviewed to examine the dimensions of supervisor support desired, and whether it is reflective of the woman's stage of change in the abusive relationship. Three clusters of support were identified - limited support; confidential, time-off and emotional support; and support-in-every-way - and were reflective of distinct stages of behaviour change. Those who desired limited support were in a precontemplative stage in terms of ending their relationship. Women in the desired support-in-every-way cluster may represent later stages of change, while the last cluster may be in the transition stage. Implications for supervisors providing support to women experiencing DV are discussed.
Pollack, K. M., Austin, W., & Grisso, J. A. (2010). Employee assistance programs: A workplace resource to address intimate partner violence. Journal of Women's Health, 19(4), 729-733. This systematic review identified nine articles in English that explored the role of Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) in addressing intimate partner violence. The authors highlight that there is a lack of research in this area - most of the studies provided recommendations on how EAPs could address IPV and only two articles were intervention studies. Evidence-based policies and programs on the role of EAPs in addressing IPV are advocated for. 
Pollack, K. M., Cummiskey, C., Krotki, K., Salomon, M., Dickin, A., Gray, W. A., & Grisso, J. A. (2010). Reasons women experiencing intimate partner violence seek assistance from employee assistance programs. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 25(3), 181-194. 760 women living in the United States who experienced intimate partner violence and contacted Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) were surveyed to understand the services sought and the reasons for contacting EAP. Many women viewed EAP as a convenient and accessible resource to access supportive services, and many were referred to EAP by someone that they knew. Many women contacted their EAP espeically for mental health and legal services. The article provides policy and practice implications for strengthening EAP responses to women experiencing IPV.
Pollack, K.M., McKay, T., Cumminskey, C., Clinton-Sherrod, A.M., Lindquist, C.H., Lasater, B.M.. ... Grisso, J.A. (2010). Employee assistance program services for intimate partner violence and client satisfaction with these services. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 52(8):819-826 Using a mixed-methods approach, interviews and a web-based survey were conducted to examine victim's utility and satisfaction of Employee Assistance PRograms (EAPs) when seeking intimate partner violence related assistance. In a sample of 1765 American women, it was revealed that EAPs provide fairly extensive support to IPV victims and satisfaction with these services was associated with annual income  and type of support received. Representatives reported difficulty in identifying victims and women expressed concern regarding confidentiality. Implications for EAPs are discussed, including strengthening service delivery.
Potter, S. J., & Banyard, V. L. (2011). The victimization experiences of women in the workforce: Moving beyond single categories of work or violence. Violence and Victims, 26(4), 513-532 This exploratory study documents the prevalence of the types of violence against women (namely sexual assault, intimate partner physical violence, stalking and sexual harassment) in a sample of 1079 employed (predominantly non-low wage) women living in  New Hampshire. 69% of the women in the sample experienced at least one type of violence and highlighted that VAW is not confined to low income women. The authors indicate that policies that employers develop need to be responsive to the array of victimizations that women may experience. 
Powers, R. & Kaukinen, C.E. (2012). Trends in intimate partner violence: 1980-2008. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27: 3072-3090. Using 28 years of data from the National Crime Victimization Survey, this study examined the trends of intimate partner violence against female victims and variations in a woman's risk specifically related to employment and race in the United States. The rate of IPV declined in the 1990's, following developments in domestic violence serices, resources and legal reforms.  Employment is associated with a higher risk of IPV, though it is partly contingent on race. Graphs documenting the rates of IPV for white, non-white, employed and unemployed women are included. Findings indicate that there are differnces in the trends across both race and employment status. Implications for identifying women most at risk are discussed. 
Pyles, L., & Banerjee, M. M. (2010). Work experiences of women survivors: Insights from the capabilities approach. Affilia: Journal of Women & Social Work, 25(1), 43-55. Nine women survivors were interviewed regarding their experiences with work from a capabilities of human functioning framework. Focusing on a social welfare approach, women identified the impact of gender-based violence on their work lives. Many reported that they were not able to do what they wanted in terms of employment and many adapt their life choices to suit life circumstances with little assistance from society. Implications for social welfare policy are addressed. 
Randel, J.A. & Well, K.K. (2003). Corporate approaches to reducing intimate partner violence through workplace initiatives. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 3: 821–841. This article provides an overview of the cost of domestic violence to workplaces in the United States. It outlines reasons why employers should get involved in addressing domestic violence in their workplace and introduces steps employers can take to introduce an intitiative in their workplace.  Current best practices are reviewed, along with a case study of Liz Clairborne's Women's Work Program.  
Raphael, J. (2001). Domestic violence as a welfare-to-work barrier: Research and theoretical issues. Sourcebook on violence against women. (pp. 443-456) Sage Publications, Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA. This chapter examines the impact that welfare reform measures has had on female victims of domestic violence in the United States. Welfare recipients are required to meet specific 'welfare-to-work' requirements. Considerations based on child care issues, physical or mental health or lack of job opportunities are illuminated as salient for these women.
Rayner-Thomas, M.M. (2013). The impacts of domestic violence on workers and the workplace (unpublished master’s thesis). The University of Auckland, New Zealand.  This unpublished master’s thesis reports on the prevalence of domestic violence among workers in New Zealand and its impact on productivity, along with current workplace policies, procedures and attitudes surrounding the needs of workers experiencing domestic violence.  
Reckitt, L.G., & Fortman, L.A. (2004). Impact of domestic violence offenders on occupational safety and health: A pilot study. Augusta, ME: Maine Department of Labour and Family Crisis Services.  This study examines how domestic violence perpetrators impact workplace productivity, health and safety and lost of work time. Furthermore, this study explored supervisor response to knowledge of the arrest of a perpetrator as well as court orders.
Reeves, C., & O’Leary-Kelly, A.M. (2007). The effects and costs of intimate partner violence for work organizations. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 22(3):327-344. This study investigates the cost related to productivity loss due to the impact that domestic violence (DV) has on the workplace. Researchers compared differences between victims of DV with non-victims on the number of work hours missed due to absenteeism, tardiness, and work distractions. They also examined the cost for employers as a result of the missed hours of work. 823 males and 1550 females  employed at three midsized organizations were surveyed using an online survey. Overall, findings indicated that DV has negative effects on an organization. However, there is variation in the nature and the costs of these effects given the varying types of victimization. 
Riger, S., Ahrens, C., & Blickenstaff, A. (2000).  Measuring interference with employment and education reported by women with abusive partners: Preliminary data. Violence and Victims, 15 (2): 161-172. This study examined the reliability and convergent validity of a measure that assesses ways in which abusive men interfere with women's employment and education. The scale, Work/School Abuse Scale. Results show promise that it is a reliable and valid measure of the ways in which physical violence and interference impede victims' economic growth and esteem.
Riger, S., Ahrens, C., & Blickenstaff, A. (2001). Measuring interference with employment and education reported by women with abusive partners: Preliminary data. Psychological abuse in violent domestic relations. (pp. 119-133) Springer Publishing Co, New York, NY. This study undertook the development of a measure that assesses abusive behaviours by intimate partners that interfered with women’s employment and education. This article presents the Work/School Abuse Scale (W/SAS) and it subscales as well as examines it relationship with other measure of violence.  Findings indicated that the W/SAS is a reliable and valid measure of interference with women’s work and and/or school. 
Riger, S. & Staggs, S.L. (2004). Welfare reform, domestic violence and employment: What do we know and what do we need to know. Violence Against Women, 10(9), 961-990. This article reviews the research findings on employment, domestic violence (DV) and welfare reform in America. Findings indicated that an important element in helping reduced poverty and DV may be the inclusion of substantial employment supports in welfare legislation. The authors posit that it may be more useful to employ an approach that is sensitive to contextual factors as well as a social psychological perspective in identifying pertinent dimensions of culture than only focusing on characteristics of women.
Rothman, E. F., & Corso, P. S. (2008). Propensity for intimate partner abuse and workplace productivity: Why employers should care. Violence Against Women, 14(9), 1054-1064. Using a small sample of men, this study examined if domestic violence  was a predictor of absenteeism and decreased productivity at work. Results indicated that missing days of work and experiencing a reduction of productivity was positively associated to abusive behaviour.  This was found after controlling for age, education level, marital status, income, and being employed in part-time or full-time work. 
Rothman, E. F., Hathaway, J., Stidsen, A., & de Vries, H. F. (2007). How employment helps female victims of intimate partner violence: A qualitative study. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12(2), 136-143.  This study examined the intersection between domestic violence (DV) and the workplace for a sample of 21 women who were both employed and victims of DV. These women were all employed by a large health care organization.  After completing these interviews, a content analysis was conducted that provided six ways in which employment was helpful for the participants. The six ways were: improving finances, promoting physical safety, increasing self-esteem, improving social connectedness, providing mental respite, and providing motivation or a "purpose in life". These findings demonstrate the important role that employment can have for victims of DV. Implications of findings include the importance of flexible leave polices and Employee Assistance Programs.  
Rothman, E. F., & Perry, M. J. (2004). Intimate partner abuse perpetrated by employees. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 9(3), 238-246. Using a mixed-methods approach, this exploratory study examined domestic violence (DV) perpetration as it related to employment. Data from focus groups and a brief survey was collected from 29 men who had previously been convicted of DV. Findings suggested that men attributed absences, reduced productivity, and errors in their performance to their abuse. Furthermore, findings indicated that harassing behaviours by these men involved using employer’s resources (i.e., phones, vehicles, emails). Zero-tolerance polices were also suggested to be ineffective, with DV training for employers being seen as a more beneifical option.  
Rugala, E.A. & Isaacs, A.R.(2003). Workplace violence: issues in response. U.S. Department of Justice: National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime This monograph is a result of a 2002 symposium entitled "Violence in the Workplace" hosted by the U.S. National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime (NCAVC). Representatives from law enforcement, private industry, government, law, labor, professional organizations, victim services, military, academia, mental health and members of the NCAVC and the ritical Incident Response Group Crisis Negotiation Unite came together to share their expertise. It is meant to serve as a practical guide to busineses and government in implementing a proactive workplace violence prevention strategy. 
Sable, M. R., Libbus, M. K., Huneke, D., & Anger, K. (1999). Domestic violence among AFDC recipients: Implications for welfare-to-work programs. Affilia, 14(2), 199-216.  This article reports on the findings from a 1996 prevalence study on domestic violence (DV) and other family-related problems for a group of 404 women who were Aid to Families with Dependent Children recipients. Results indicated that almost a third of the women had experienced violence in their lives, with 10 per cent being abused in the last year of the study. Women also indicated that the experience of abuse or lack of support reduced their ability to work. However, this was even more significantly reduced by lack of childcare and transportation. Implications discussed include the impact DV has on women’s success in finding and maintaining employment. 
Samuel, L. Tudor, C., Moss, H., Weinstein, M, Glass, N (2011). Employers’ perceptions of
intimate partner violence among a diverse workforce. Safety and Health at Work. 2, 250-259.
This qualitative study explored employers’ perception of domestic violence (DV) within a workforce by interviewing 14 employers and supervisors of small service sector companies. Three themes emerged from these semi-structured interviews: factors associated with recognizing DV in the workplace, effects of DV on the work environment and, supervisors' responses to active and passive DV. These themes are described in detail and recommendations from supervisors for addressing DV are summarized. Findings also highlight the need for individualized interventions and culturally appropriate workplace interventions. 
Sanders, C. K. (2015). Economic abuse in the lives of women abused by an intimate partner: A qualitative study. Violence Against Women, 21(1), 3-29.  This study examines the role of financial issues and economic factors in the lives of women who have experienced DV. A qualitative analysis was completed on discussions that had taken place with 30 women between June 2002 and May 2004. Eight themes emerged from these discussions around DV and issues that develop from money and economic issues. There was a clear indication that these women supported economic abuse dimension of domestic violence. Authors discuss the role of advancing economic well-being for women who are survivors of DV and in low-earning jobs.
Savard, D. M., & Kennedy, D. B. (2013). Responding to intimate partner violence in the workplace. Security Journal, 26(3), 249-263.  This article discusses the role of security in dealing with domestic violence (DV) as it enters the workplace. The authors explore the evolving role that security mangers will face when confronted with instances of DV at the workplace and the type of appropriate responses. Authors highlight the importance of having knowledge of the law that addresses restraining orders, understanding liability due to negligence, and recognizing the warning signs of DV, particularly stalking, when dealing with DV security concerns at work. 
Schmidt, M. & Barnett, A. (2011). Effects of Domestic Violence on the Workplace: A Vermont survey of male offenders enrolled in batterer intervention programs.  Montpelier, VT: Vermont Council on Domestic Violence, 2011. 193 male offenders enrolled in batterer intervention programs in Vermont were surveyed about the impact of their abusive behaviour on their workplace and work performance.  Key study findings: approximately one-third of offenders utilized work time to make a verbal threat to their partner;40% of supervisors were aware of the behaviour; 31% of respondents took paid and/or unpaid time off to be abusive or to deal with the aftermath of abuse; and 93% of respondents suggested it would be helpful for supervisors to confront an employee whom they suspect is abusive toward their intimate partner. Recommendations for employer addressing domestic violence in the workplace is included. 
Shepard, M., & Pence, E. (1988). The effect of battering on the employment status of women. Affilia, 3(2), 55-61. This study explored the impact that domestic violence (DV) has on employment status. Surveying a sample of 71 women who have experienced with DV, it was found that a majority of these women felt their work was seriously affected by DV. Absenteeism was found to be a direct result of the effects of DV had on a victims work performance. Results also found that these women experienced harassment by their abusers at work. Many women reported that their abuser would use interference tactics to disrupt them from attending school or obtain work. Implications are discussed, with the authors highlighting the need for awareness on DV's impact on women and the workplace.  
Shiles, M. N. (2012). Impact of intimate partner violence on survivors' work-related self-efficacy expectations and outcome expectations. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 7721. This dissertation utilizes Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory as a theoretical framework to determine whether the verbal and psychological aspects of intimate partner violence are related to the work-related efficacy expectations, outcome expectations, and goals of survivors. Data from 117 women indicate that verbal/psychological victimization do not significantly predict work-related self-efficacy expectations or work-related outcome expectations, even when duration of abuse was considered. It was found that older participants reported less positive expectations about the consequences of job-seeking and working than did younger participants. 
Sinha, M. (2013). Measuring Violence Against Women: Statistical Trends 2006.Ottawa  ON: Statistics Canada. This report generated by Statistics Canada provides a comprehensive picture of the extent and nature of violence against women, using both police-reported crime data and self-reported victimization data. The report outlines: Prevalence and severity of violence against women; Risk factors associated with violence against women; Impact of violence against women; and, Responses to violence against women.
Smith, E.J. (2011). The relationship between workplace harassment and interpersonal workplace harassment in harris county, texas. Dissertation, University of Phoenix.  This study examined the relationship between workplace harassment from male partners, and interpersonal workplace harassment women experience from supervisors and co-workers. The author employed two surveys, one to measure workplace harassment from male partners (i.e., Workplace Harassment survey) and the other to measure interpersonal workplace harassment (i.e. workplace Dynamics survey). A purposely-sampled group of 137 employed women who were attending a career college were surveyed. Results suggested that there is a relationship between the variables. 
Smith Slep, A. M., Foran, H. M., & Heyman, R. E. (2014). An ecological model of intimate partner violence perpetration at different levels of severity. Journal of Family Psychology, 28(4), 470-482.  This study tested an ecological model for both general and clinically significant perpetration of domestic violence (DV). The researchers posited that risk and protective factors from the different ecological levels (i.e., individual, family, workplace, community) is important in the prediction of DV perpetration. This study had United States Air Force duty members and their civilian spouses from 82 sites worldwide complete an anonymous online survey (i.e. 2006 Community Assessment) to assess DV perpetration as well as a variety of risk and protective factors. In total, 34,861 men and 24,331 women were surveyed.  Structural equation models for men and women supported the relevance of an ecological approach for DV perpetration. Factors from all four levels were associated with both general DV and clinically significant DV perpetration. Results suggested improving risk profiles at the individual, family, workplace, and community levels may be done through a variety of established and new potential targets for indirectly targeting general and clinically significant DV perpetration. 
Smock, E. L. (2003). Addressing stalking at work: What women and advocates can do. Stalking: Psychology, risk factors, interventions, and law. (pp. 13-1-13-17) Civic Research Institute, Kingston, NJ. This article describes the practical steps which employers can take when an employee is experiencing stalking. Included in these steps are developing a safety plan as well as appropriate actions that employers should take to ensure the protection of their employee. The author also discusses actions that can be taken against a negligent employer.
Staggs, S. L., & Riger, S. (2005). Effects of intimate partner violence on low-income women's health and employment. American Journal of Community Psychology, 36(1-2), 133-145. Using data from a three-year study of over 1000 women in Illinois, this paper examines the relationship between domestic violence (DV), health, and employment stability. Results indicated that the chronic DV is associated with poorer health. However, results also demonstrated that recent DV is associated with unstable employment. Health was not found to mediate the effects of abuse on employment stability over a three-year period. 
Staggs, S. L., Long, S. M., Mason, G. E., Krishnan, S., & Riger, S. (2007). Intimate partner violence, social support, and employment in the post-welfare reform era. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 22(3), 345-367.  This study used three years of longitudinal data to explore relationships among domestic violence (DV), material support, emotional support, employment stability, and job turnover among women who were currently and formerly social assistance receivers. Results indicated that being a current victim of DV and having lower social support predicted less stable future employment. Result also indicated that current social support did not predict future DV, nor did perceived social support mediate the relationship between DV and employment stability for this particular sample. 
Statistics Canada. (2015).  Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile 2013 Ottawa, ON: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. This report outlines the incidence of family violence in Canada in 2013, including familial violence, intimate partner violence, violence against children and youth, and violence against seniors. The data is based on police reported incidents.
Swanberg, J. E., & Logan, T. K. (2005). Domestic violence and employment: A qualitative study. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10(1), 3-17. This is an exploratory study that gathered information about: how domestic violence affects women’s employment, identifying interference tactics employed by abusers, consequences on women’s work performance, contextual factors in disclosure at the workplace, and identifying employer supports. Qualitative analysis was completed which revealed that perpetrators interferences efforts take place before, during and after work. These tactics reduce victims’ work performance, which was found in increased absenteeism, tardiness, job leavings, and termination. Researchers also found that both formal and informal supports were offered by employers upon disclosure, however fear and safety issues mitigated employer’s efforts in retaining workers who experience violence.
Swanberg, J., & Logan, T. K. (2007). Intimate partner violence, employment and the workplaces: An interdisciplinary perspective. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 22(3), 263-267.  A brief review of the articles included in the special editorial on intimate partner violence. The editors focus is on how IPV manifests itself in the workplace and the cost of this is explored.
Swanberg, J. E., Logan, T. K., & Macke, C. (2005). Intimate partner violence, employment, and the workplace: Consequences and future directions. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 6(4), 286-312. This article reviews the literature on violence against women and employment. After the authors discuss the definition and consequences of domestic violence (DV), the article goes on to review research to describe the: types of job interference tactics employed by abusers, consequences on the employee, victims response to DV, organizational consequences to DV, and employer response to DV. Workplace implications and future direction for research are further discussed.
Swanberg, J. E., & Macke, C. (2006). Intimate partner violence and the workplace: Consequences and disclosure. Affilia, 21(4), 391-406. This article explores the consequences and context of domestic violence when it spills over into the workplace for a sample of 34 employed women. The consequences of abusers actions on an employees work performance, the context of these women disclosing at work, the type of workplace supports received, and the outcomes of receiving these supports are explored.  The researchers also discuss implications for social work practice.
Swanberg, J. E., Macke, C., & Logan, T. K. (2006). Intimate partner violence, women, and work: Coping on the job. Violence and Victims, 21(5), 561-578. This article explores the impact that perpetrators have on a worker, how victims cope with violence at work and workplace supports that are received. This study included a sample of 518 women who were recently employed and who had domestic violence orders. Exploration and description of interference tactics is provided. Results indicated that perpetrators use a range of work interference tactics and co-workers and supervisors also provided a range of supports to women who disclosed about their experiences. Women in this sample were also found to be more likely to tell someone at work about their victimization than they were to hide their experience.
Swanberg, J., Macke, C., & Logan, T. K. (2007). Working women making it work: Intimate partner violence, employment, and workplace support. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 22(3), 292-311. This study examined the association between workplace disclosure of domesstic violence  and current employment status. Furthermore, the researchers also explore whether there is an association between receiving workplace supports and employment status for women who disclosed to some one at their place of employment. Using 485 women who had been victimized and who were employed within the year, the researchers examined differences in currently employed women with unemployed women in the sample. This study found that disclosure and workplace support are associated with employment. The researchers discuss implications for practitioners, workplace polices and further directions in researcher.
Swanberg, J.E., Ojha, M., & Macke, C. (2012). State employment protection statutes for victims of domestic violence: Public policy’s response to domestic violence as an employment matter. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27(3): 587-619. A content analysis was conducted analysing state-level employment protection policies that specifically addressed DV. After examining a sample of 369 policies, three broad policy categories emerged: (a) policies that offer work leave for victims, (b) policies that aim to reduce employment discrimination of DV victims, and (c) policies that aim to increase awareness and safety in the workplace. Researchers also found that implementation of policies varies significantly across states and implication for workplaces, practitioners, as well as policy leaders are discussed.
Sylaska, K. M., & Edwards, K. M. (2014). Disclosure of intimate partner violence to informal social support network members: A review of the literature. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse: A Review Journal, 15(1), 3-21.  This literature review examines the rates, experiences and correlates of victims’ disclosure of DV to informal social support members (e.g., friends, family, classmates, and co-workers). Research indicates that most disclose to at least one informal support about their abuse and that disclosure is often associated with a number of demographic, interpersonal, and situational factors. Most victims also have positive experiences following disclosure to informal supports. Authors also review psychological correlates associated with reactions to disclosure, with positive social reactions associated with more psychological health benefits and fewer negative health symptoms.  Discussion on future research methodologies and implications for violence prevention, intervention and policy is provided.
The National Council to Reduce Violence against Women and their Children. (2009). The Cost of Violence Against Women and Their Children. Commonwealth of Australia. This descriptive study presents the costs of violence against women and children in Australia.
Tiesman, H.M., Gurka, K.K., Konda, S., Coben, J.H., & Amandus, H.E. (2012). Workplace homicides among U.S. women: The role of intimate partner violence. Annals of Epidemiology, 22(4):277-284. This descriptive study presents the prevalence rates of workplace homicides in the United States from 2003-2008 in the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. Results illuminate that a large percentage of homicides occurring to women at work are perpetrated by intimate partners.  Important work-specific risk factors are highlighted, allowing some insight into the development of intervention programs.
Tolman, R.M., & Wang, H. (2005). Domestic violence and women’s employment: Fixed effects models of three waves of  women’s employment study data. American Journal of Community Psychology, 36(1/2):147-158. Using a sample of American women receiving welfare subsidies, this study examined the effect that domestic violence has on women’s employment. Result demonstrated that DV significantly reduced the amount of time participants spent at work. These researchers also found that mental and physical health problems did not completely mediate the aforementioned relationship. Leading the researchers to support the efforts to address DV within the welfare system.
Trade Union Congress. (2014). Domestic violence and the workplace: A Trade Union Congress survey report. London, U.K.: Trades Union Congress House. This report presents the findings from the United Kingdom national survey on domestic violence and the workplace. Nearly 3,400 respondents reported on their experiences with domestic violence in their workplaces.
United States Department of Labor. (2006). Survey of workplace violence prevention, 2005. Bureau of Labor Statistics.  This report examines a national survey on workplace violence prevention and the prevalence of security features, the risks facing employees, employer polices and training, and related topics in fostering a safe work environment.
Urban, B. Y., & Bennett, L. W. (1999). When the community punches a time clock: Evaluating a collaborative workplace domestic abuse prevention program. Violence Against Women, 5(10), 1178-1193.  This article examines the development, implementation and evaluation of a domestic violence (DV) prevention program for employees who were currently employed in a garment factory. Researchers describe their own past experiences, literature on collaborative research in the workplace, and examples from other workplace prevention programs to highlight the importance of collaborative programs. Issues in collaborating between researchers, advocates, employers, employees and the employer’s foundation are described and addressed. The authors discuss the significance of a collaborative program evaluation, particularly when following this process reduces methodological rigor.  
VandeWeerd, C., Coulter, M. L., & Mercado-Crespo, M. (2011). Female intimate partner violence victims and labor force participation. Partner Abuse, 2(2), 147-165. This study examined the impact domestic violence (DV) has on women leaving welfare for employment. Using a sample of 411 women in Florida who participated in the 2000-2002 Work and Gain Economic Self-Sufficiency program, the researchers examined the mediating factors that these women experienced going back to work. Demographic data, DV experiences and other mediating factors (i.e., social support, employer support, mental and physical health, parenting stress and employment success) were collected through telephone interviews. Regression analysis found that employment success among these participants who were in a relationship is best predicted by a short-term impact of having experience DV before the past 12 months. Researchers also found that having suitable housing predicted lower parenting stress and better physical health as well as social support outcomes. That said, experiencing DV within the past 12 months predicted worse mental health and lower parenting stress. 
Vara Horna, A.A. (2014). Violence against women and its financial consequences for women in Peru. Regional Program Fighting Violence against Women in Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia and Paraguay. This report examines the prevalence of domestic violence amongst female employees in private companies and the financial consequences for businesses in Peru.
Varcoe, C., Hankivsky, O., Ford-Gilboe, M., Wuest, J., Wilk, P., Hammerton, J., et al. (2011). Attributing selected costs to intimate partner violence in a sample of women who have left abusive partners: A social determinants of  health approach. Canadian Public Policy, 37(3):359-380.  This study examined the costs associated with domestic violence (DV) for women who had left their abusive male partners over an average of 20 months previously. Using a community sample of 309 Canadian women, total annual costs of selected public and private sector expenditures attributable to violence was calculated to be $13,162.39 per woman. As such, the Canadian annual cost for women aged 19-65 who left their abusive partners was found to be approximately $6.9 billion dollars. The researchers highlighted that costs continue long after leaving an abusive relationship. They also draw attention to the need for both awareness and recognition in policy that leaving a violent relationship does not coincide with ending violence.   
Versola-Russo, J. & Russo, F. (2009). When Domestic Violence Turns into Workplace Violence: Organizational Impact and Response. Journal of Police Crisis Negotiations, 9 (2), 141-148 This article examines the literature on domestic violence, its spill over into the workplace, and the difficulty this intersection has for law enforcement agencies to address and prevent violence. The authors highlight the importance of engaging the general population in their responsibility to improve safety and wellbeing for all people. The authors go on to discuss the importance for managers and employees within the workplace to take appropriate efforts in establishing and enforcing workplace violence training, polices and programs. The importance of having programs that are coordinated with law enforcement agencies are also discussed. 
Wagner, KC., Yates, D., & Walcott, Q. (2012). Engaging men and women as allies: A case study of a labor/management initiative that addresses the connection and consequences between domestic violence, male bullying and workplace violence and imparts skills for ally behaviors. Work, 42: 107-113. This study is a post-hoc analysis of a replicable workplace behavioural change module called, ‘Men and Women As Allies'. In this study, a team of labour management and community anti-violence educators implemented this module in a private sector telecommunications employer. An educational seminar was offered that examined DV and its link to male bullying and workplace violence. Additional topics that challenged stereotypical gender assumptions were discussed and skills were taught to engage ally peer behaviours. Results from 339 completed questionnaires given to approximately 1,500 union members and 125 management employees examined the degree to which their knowledge of specific training context changed as a result of the training. Overall, awareness was found to increase with the training. 
Walters, J. L. H., Pollack, Keshia M, Clinton-Sherrod, M., Lindquist, C. H., McKay, T., & Lasater, B. M.  (2012). Approaches used by employee assistance programs to address perpetration of intimate partner violence. Violence and Victims, 27(2), 135-47. This study examines workplace resources, specifically Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) that are designed to help victims of domestic violence (DV). A sample of 28 EAPs from across the United States were surveyed to identify programs and polices that they offer to address DV for both victims and perpetrators. The researchers found that majority of EAPs did not report having any standardized approaches for addressing DV perpetration. Furthermore, most EAPs relayed heavily on self-disclosure of DV perpetration, which researchers suggested means EAPs are likely missing potential opportunities to assess and intervene. The important role that EAPs have with helping victims and intervening for perpetrators is discussed.   
Wathen, C.N. MacGregor, J.C.D., & MacQuarrie, B.(2015). The impact of domestic violence in the workplace
Results from a pan-canadian survey. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57:65-71
This article provides the intial findings of a Canadian national survey on the impact of domestic violence in the workplace from a sample of 8429 participants. Main findings highlight that approximately 30% of women surveyed were impacted by domestic violence at some point in their lifetime, domestic violence impacts workers at the workplace and the negative effects impact workplace performance. 
Wettersten, K. B., Rudolph, S. E., Faul, K., Gallagher, K., Trangsrud, H. B., Adams, K., . . . Terrance, C. (2004). Freedom through self-sufficiency: A qualitative examination of the impact of domestic violence on the working lives of women in shelter. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51(4), 447-462. This study examined the impact that domestic violence (DV) has on the working lives of a sample of 10 women who were currently in a shelter. Interviews suggested that DV has a profound effect on women’s employment, including their ability to maintain work as well as their ability to concentrate while at work. Other contextual factors were explored; these factors included children, external barriers, and community resources. Researchers discuss implications for both practitioners and researchers in this area and suggested a model in which physical and psychological violence act as moderating influences on a women’s employment.
Widiss, D.A. (2008). Domestic violence and the workplace: the explosion of state legislation and the need for a comprehensive strategy. Florida State University Law Review, 35:669-728. This article discusses the emerging domestic violence (DV) legislation and its development with both DV law as well as employment law. There is a particular focus on how this legislation relates to accommodating individual needs within a workplace. The author uses employment law accommodation mandates, like the Family and Medical Leave Act and the American with Disabilities Act to model possible workplace accommodations. The author discusses the complexities in developing legislation to permit employee absences for DV. The article offers several recommendations on future reform as well as demonstrates the efficacy of approaching the issue more comprehensively. 
Younger, B. (1994). Violence against women in the workplace. Employee Assistance Quarterly, 9(3-4), 113-133. Researchers conducted a study to examined the risk for violence toward women in the workplace using three categories of workplace violence (i.e., random criminal, worker, and relationship or domestic violence). To examine workplace violence, researchers analysed the 1991 Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. Results indicated that of all workplace deaths for women, 39% were the victims of assaults, while only 18% of male fatalities were murdered at work. Over three-fourths of all women homicides were acts of random criminal violence. Researchers used a case study to highlight the effects of DV entering the workplace. They also discuss assessment and prevention techniques that can be employed by EAPs.  
Yount, K. M., Zureick-brown, S., & Salem, R. (2014). Intimate partner violence and women's economic and non-economic activities in minya, egypt. Demography, 51(3), 1069-1099. Using a sample of 564 married women from rural Egypt, these researchers examined the spill over, compensation, and patriarchal bargaining theories about the influences exposure to domestic violence has on their engagement in and time spent on market, subsistence, domestic and care work. Their results supported compensation theory, in that exposure to recent and chronic physical and sexual violence was associated with difficulty in performing subsistence work. Furthermore, their results found that exposure to recent and chronic DV is associated with more time spent in domestic work and lower adjusted odds of performing mostly nonspousal care work; cultural norms and expectations are discussed by the researchers.
Yragui, N.L.(2009). Intimate partner violence, supervisor support and work outcomes for low-wage workers. Dissertation, Portland State University. This dissertation examined the important role that the workplace can play for victims of domestic violence to receive support. The researcher specifically examined which supervisor support measures best predicted work outcomes for victims of DV who were employed in a low wage job. Additionally, the research evaluated the criterion validity and reliability of behavioural method that measures wanted and received supervisor support (i.e. IPV-WSA).  163 Face-to-face interviews were conducted with participants 18 years and older who were currently employed or employed in the last six months as well as in a violent relationship within the past 2 years. Findings highlight important theoretical and practical implications of support theory and workplace interventions of DV. IPV-WSA was found to provide valuable information about supervisor support match, further discussion is provided on its use in informing workplace interventions. 
Yragui, N.L., Mankowski, E.S., Perrin, N.A., & Glass, N.E. (2012). Dimensions of support among abused women in the workplace. American Journal of Community Psychology, 49:31-42. This study examined the support offered to employed women experiencing domestic violence (DV).  Using social support theory as a framework, the researchers examined how supervisor provided their support and the outcomes of providing support. Using a community sample of 163 employed and abused women this study's main goal was to determine the association between supervisor support match/mismatch with work outcomes.  After analysing face-to-face interviews, results indicated that a higher level of supervisor support match was associated with fewer job reprimands and less job termination as well as greater job satisfaction. 
Zhang, T., Hoddenbagh, J., McDonald, S. & Scrim, K. (2012). An Estimation of the Economic Impact of Spousal Violence in Canada, 2009. Department of Justice Canada.  This report provides an estimate of the economic impact, of spousal violence that occurred in Canada in 2009. Of note, the study reports on costs to the justice system, health care system, productivity losses and intangible costs.
Zuckerman, M. B. (2012). Intimate partner violence: Women and work within an ecological framework. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences,  3510.  This dissertation examined the factors that support or hinder employment for female victims of domestic violence (DV). The ecological framework was used to organize the different levels that impact a victim’s employment. Qualitative data was collected and analysed after conducting in-depth interviews with 41 women who were both employed and experiencing DV. Majority of participants indicated that they were unable to maintain employment for long periods of time due to barriers they encountered. These barriers included: work interferences, male abuser’s attitude about victim working, pressures of parenting and working. Implications are discussed, including the need for increased public awareness on DV, workplace DV policies, and affordable childcare.